CLASSICAL.city
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classical.city


Tradition since 1889

"Classical Music:"
the term, like the term "Ancient Music" or Early Music" can mean works from the past, played with "historical context & instruments or modern instruments, historical compositions, as well as referring to modern/contemporary musicians, composers, performers, orchestras symphonies and recording labels producing new works, in historicall- heavy, shall we say, references and stylings/structures.

Where does that leave us then in defining "Classical Music..." except perhaps to list what is is most certainly NOT: however- immediately I think of The modern Rock Mega-Band METALLICA, and their most famous works: rcorded live with full symphonic support. And I think of Gregorian or plainchant of the early renaissance, as so sililain to early colonia christian hymns, translated into the "African-American Spiritual" an amaginz early style i like to compare to the volac lines of the early 20th cent opers "Porgy & Bess." Those early american work and church song became bedrock of blues and Buddy Holly, and Elvis, and the Beatles and the Stones and &0s Rock, 80's Mega, 90's Pop Rock, and the concurrent development of eelctronic dance music from the 1970's through today. A dynamic range and complex and complete and that of the would of "Classical Music. " It can take your breath away- the legacy and exponentially growth of humain music. And while I cant say that most music being produced today is " Unto the Glory of God," to paraphrase J.S.Bach, I can say that some of my favorite is, specifically, LUX AETERNA, HANDELS MESSIAH, Requiems, Pieta-type etudes, etc., and that for most people that is true- their favorite chords elevate them to a transending plane of existence. I say people - reach out and TOUCH it, wavelengths welcome.


Menu Menu “The Mozart Effect is a theory first popularized by Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis in 1991, which links classical music to brain stimulus and improved neurological function. In 2004, The New Scientist backed up Dr Tomatis' work when it discovered evidence on a molecular basis that listening to Mozart can stimulate memory and learning. University research conducted in France found that students who listened to a one-hour lecture with classical music playing in the background scored substantially higher in their quiz than a similar group of students who attended the same lecture with no background music. The researchers speculated that classical music was able to place all of the students in a state of heightened emotion, thus making them more receptive to the data provided within the lecture.

Similarly, the University of Southern California also examined research on the relationship between classical music and enhanced learning productivity and found that having classical music playing in the background while studying allowed students to absorb information more efficiently." Hot Tip: If you'd like to experience on the effects that classical music have your own mental and physical state, here is a list that we've compiled of the five most calming and tranquil classical compositions based on their tempo and instrumentation. Mitch Barrington, Musician, Writer


Johann Pachelbel - Canon In D
Erik Satie - Trois Gymnopédies
Johann Strauss II - The Blue Danube
Frédéric Chopin - Raindrops
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Piano Trio in G Major

MUSICAL PERIODS

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Ancient music

Ancient music refers to storytelling systems developing throughout the world including the civilizations of Mesopotamia, India, Persia, Egypt, China, Greece and Rome. However the terminology has been used in varoius ways to even mean works and composers pre-1600.The original Academy of Ancient Music formed in 1726 defined "Ancient" music

Early Music as well has a colorful historical usage, where some scholars seek its application tothe music of ancient Greece or Rome before 500 AD, Johannes Brahms -era composers would use the term referring to High Renaissance and Baroque. Perhaps it can be grasped with our modern hands as amorphous at best, and in essence wholly for modern man, early music is the rivival of historical-but-rare repertoire and performance methods.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_music


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Medieval music about 500 A.D. to 1400

Medieval music includes both sacred and secular music, vocal and instrumental, and with use of Gregorian chant during Mass, an invokaction of the body and spirit of christ. Notation(pen to paper) & musical theory began their formation, particularly regular rhythms, regular harmonies and organized polyphonic lines. And so began the democtitization of music, and its cutlural impact and usage beyond the liturgy, beyond upper classes only.



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Renaissance music 1400, before 1600,

Renaissance music followed to rebirth and flourishing in art and literature that blossomed in Europe, based on achievements in humanistic thought, and building on the earlier classical civilizations artistic statements. This era saw the Pretestant Reformation, and the growth of the bourgeois class and enterpreneurial enterprise. The printing press allower the dissenmination chansons, motets, and masses throughout Europe, based in cathedral and chursh educational systems. While freeing itself from medieval constraints, the use of dissonant contra-puntal lives became less tolarated. Vistuoso court performers and and modern brass and woodwind instruments take the scene.

    Key composers
  • Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
  • Orlande de Lassus
  • Thomas Tallis
  • William Byrd

    One Thousand European Renaissance Composers:

    TAP



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Baroque music approximately 1600 to 1750

Baroque music as the Architectural Style, is known for maximalism, empasizing all elemants at once: structure, material, light, and shadow, decoration and heavy ornamentation. Baroque music was expansive in its statement and effect seeing growth in musical instruments and styles of playing. Developments in dance suites, vocal and instrumental forms of opera, the new genre of instrumental concerto and sonata and the multi-layered creations toccata, fugue and concerto grosso. Common-practice tonality: particular piece keying, and an emphasis on virtuosity with improvisation were the standards.

    Key composers
  • Johann Sebastian Bach ( YO-hon sa-BASS-tyan BOK )
  • Antonio Vivaldi (on-TO-nyo VI_VAL-di )
  • George Frideric Handel ( jorj-FREE-drik HON-dl )
  • Claudio Monteverdi ( CLOW-dyo mon-ta-VER-dee )
  • Domenico Scarlatti ( do-MEN-eko scar-LOT-tee )
  • Alessandro Scarlatti ( ole-SAN-dro scar-LOT-tee )
  • Henry Purcell ( HEN-ree PER-sell )
  • Georg Philipp Telemann ( GAY-org-flip TELL-a-mon )
  • Jean-Baptiste Lully ( JON-bateest loo-LEE )
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau ( JON-flip ra-MOH )
  • Marc-Antoine Charpentier ( marc-a-TWON char-PON-tee-ay )
  • Arcangelo Corelli ( ark-ON-je-loh ko-RE-lee )
  • Tomaso Albinoni ( to-MAH-so al-bi-NOH-nee )
  • François Couperin ( FRON-swa KOO-pe-ran )
  • Giuseppe Tartini ( ju-ZEP-pe tar-TEE-nee )
  • Heinrich Schütz ( AIN-rik SHOOTZ )
  • Giovanni Battista Pergolesi ( jo-VON-nee bu-TEES-ta per-go-LAY-zee)
  • Dieterich Buxtehude ( DEE-trik BOOKS-ta-hooda )
  • Johann Pachelbel ( YO-hon POKL-bel )


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The Classical period 1730 and 1820

The Classical period

    Key composers
  • Joseph Haydn ( YO-zef HY-den)
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( VOOLF-gonn a-ma-DAY-us MOAT-zart )
  • Ludwig van Beethoven ( LOOD-vig von BAY-tov-en )
  • and Franz Schubert ( FRONZ SHOO-bert )
  • Luigi Boccherini ( loo-EE-jee bo-kar-EE-nee )
  • Muzio Clementi ( MOOS-ee-oo cle-MEN-ti )
  • Antonio Salieri ( on-TO-nee-oh sel-YER-ree )
  • Leopold Mozart ( LAY-pold MOAT-zart
  • Johann Christian Bach ( YO-hon CREES-tyan BOK )
  • Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach ( karl-FLIP ay-MAN-uwell BOK )
  • Christoph Willibald Gluck ( KREES-tof VILL-bald GLOOK)
  • Gioachino Rossini ( yo-SHEE-no ro-SEE-nee )
  • Carl Maria von Weber ( karl-MA-rya fon-VAY-ber )

    The period is sometimes referred to as the era of Viennese Classic or Classicism (German: Wiener Klassik), since Gluck, Mozart, Haydn, Salieri, Schubert, and Beethoven all worked in Vienna.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism, the Western artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. The title character from a 19th-century performance of Wagner's opera Siegfried In the Romantic period, music became more explicitly expressive and programmatic, dealing with the literary, artistic, and philosophical themes of the time. Larger orchertras and public concerts were the focus, as were larger, longer works, and later works in nationalistic fervor.

    Key composers
  • Ludwig van Beethoven ( LOOD-wig von BAY-toven )
  • Franz Schubert ( FRONZ SHOO-bert )
  • Robert Schumann ( ROB-er SHOO-mon )
  • Frédéric Chopin ( FRAY-derik SHOW-pan )
  • (Jakob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn ( MEN-dl-son)
  • Vincenzo Bellini ( vin-CHEN-zo be-LEE-nee)
  • Hector Berlioz ( EK-tor BER-lee-ohz)

    adding complexity
  • Anton Bruckner (ON-ton BRUK-ner)
  • Johann Strauss II (YO-hon STROWSS)
  • Johannes Brahms ( yo-HON-ez BROMMS )
  • Franz Liszt ( FRONZ LIST )
  • Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky ( PAY-tor ILL-ich cha-KOV-skee)
  • Antonín Dvořák ( ON-to-neen di-VOR-jok )
  • Giuseppe Verdi ( ju-ZEP-pay VER-dee)
  • Richard Wagner ( REEK-ard VOG-ner )

    late century
  • Jean Sibelius ( JON se-BAY-lee-us)
  • Edvard Grieg ( ED-vard GREEG)
  • Camille Saint-Saëns ( co-MEE SAN-son)
  • Gabriel Fauré ( GOB-bwee-el fo-RAY )
  • Sergei Rachmaninoff ( SER-gay roc-MON-in-ov )
  • César Franck ( SAY-zar FRONK )
OPERA

OPERA


A PRIMER

UNDERSTANDING AN OPERA’S ORIGIN

Ancient Myth, Great titans of Old, ill-fated lovers and demi gods, opera uses these storytelling structures, but presents them in "new" ways: Venus & Adonis, Bacchus, Helene, Actéon, Dido, Psyche and a list of 100 more ancient myth charachters have been produced as opera and concert works throughout the history of music. In late 17th-century Italy, light-hearted musical plays began to be offered as an alternative to weightier opera seria (17th-century Italian opera based on classical mythology).

Italian and French comic opera grew as a genre of musical theater of sentiment and satire, farsical romantic drama- as plots develop around characters, the very language they speak informs, tone, patterrn rhythm and structure. Spanish opera added more ballet and spoken-word, and the Enslish Light Opera began as an alternative to the by-then- bawdy burlesque state of publically-accessible theater, giving way to the popular British Gilbert & Sullivan style, known as Savoy Opera.

UNDERSTANDING LIBRETTO

Libretto

Each sentiment and word has a dedicated place in the elongates vesrion of it's story's Libretto, the "Little Book,"(italian,) which is the basis for an opera. In film the textual content is called the screenplay, and in theater it is the script. An opera’s words are called its libretto, whereas, in a stage play, the words are called the script, and in a movie they’re called the screenplay. Libretto may resolve as a moral tale using larger-than-life, scenario and personalities, often in cathartic, nightmarish, sublime and flourishing ways. A composer may desire to translate a stage play into an opera, or a librettist may seek his work musically styled by a specific composer, or the match may be made by a wealthy patron.

Da PONTE, the FAMOUS LIBRETTIST

Lorenzo da Ponte (1749–1838) provided Mozart with the inspiration for Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, and Così fan tutte, and because of his colorful life. It’s a long story, but suffice it to say that da Ponte was a Venetian priest who fathered 2 children with a married woman, was run out of town, moved to Vienna, forged a letter of introduction, passed himself off as a librettist, worked with Mozart, had several affairs with leading divas, moved to London, got heavily into debt, and fled to New York, where he started a grocery store and the Italian department at Columbia University. It’s safe to say that Lorenzo da Ponte is the greatest librettist ever to be buried in Queens. In 1773 Da Ponte moved to Venice, where he made a living as a teacher of Latin, Italian and French. Although he was a Catholic priest, the young man led a dissolute life. While priest of the church of San Luca, he took a mistress, with whom he had two children. At his 1779 trial, where he was charged with "public concubinage" and "abduction of a respectable woman", it was alleged that he had been living in a brothel and organizing the entertainments there. He was found guilty and banished for fifteen years from Venice.[3] for a timeline lifeevents gallery tap: HERE



Don Giovanni

Don Giovanni

cohorts & conquests

Opera by W. A. Mozart

lib·er·tine
{LIB-er-teen}
noun

1. a person, especially a man, who behaves without moral principles or a sense of responsibility, especially in sexual matters. synonyms: philanderer, playboy, rake, roué, Don Juan, Lothario, Casanova, Romeo; lecher, seducer, womanizer, adulterer, debauchee, profligate, wanton; skirt-chaser, tomcat, horndog, ladykiller, lech, wolf, fornicator "an unrepentant libertine"
2. a person who rejects accepted opinions in matters of religion; a freethinker.

Synopsis

The young energentic nobleman leaves a trail of tear across Europe seeking to satisfy himself with philandering. His casual escapism eventually turns a mob against him and his servant, until while endlessly partying, they invite the wrong character to feast.

https://www.metopera.org/discover/synopses/

Photo of Me

Don Giovanni,;the dissolute is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte, based on the older story by Tirso di Molina of the seductive, heartless, maddning character Don Juan and his cohorts & conquests, who meets his supernatural doom, still unrepentant. It features comic elements, moral warning and deadly consequences. Almost everyone's heart is torn out by the tornado of a man that is the nobleman Don Giovanni. Premiered by Prague Italian opera at the National Theater (of Bohemia.)

The opera was first performed on 29 October 1787 in Prague under its full title of Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni – Dramma giocoso in due atti (The Rake punished, or Don Giovanni, a dramma giocoso in two acts). The work was rapturously received, as was often true of Mozart's work in Prague. The Prager Oberpostamtzeitung reported, "Connoisseurs and musicians say that Prague has never heard the like," and "the opera … is extremely difficult to perform."[9] The Provincialnachrichten of Vienna reported, "Herr Mozart conducted in person and was welcomed joyously and jubilantly by the numerous gathering."[10]

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Instrumentation

Woodwinds: two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets and two bassoons Brass: two horns, two trumpets, three trombones Percussion: timpani Strings: first violins, second violins, violas, cellos and double basses Basso continuo in secco recitatives of harpsichord and violoncello (period performance practice often uses a fortepiano only) Mandolin[22]

Tirso, the Poet & Playwrite

Tirso de Molina (24 March 1579 – 12 March 1648[1]) was a Spanish Baroque dramatist, poet and Roman Catholic monk. He is primarily known for writing The Trickster of Seville and the Stone Guest, the play from which the popular character of Don Juan originates.[2] His work is also of particular significance due to the abundance of female protagonists, as well as the exploration of sexual issues.[3] He worked prolifically in playwriting, but critisized other styles and was criticized himself, once vowing to never write in theater again, which of course did not last and he went on to publish many more, working sometimes under pseudonym, only a fraction of which are collected and preserved for republishing.

Concurrently he worked zealously on behalf of his order, and rose to an important position; he became superior of the monastery at Trujillo in 1626, was elected later to the posts of reader in theology and definidor general[further explanation needed], and in May 1632 was appointed chronicler of the Order of Mercy. "Tirso de Molina has neither Lope de Vega's inventive resource, nor his infinite seduction; he has neither Pedro Calderón de la Barca's idealistic visions, nor his golden music; but he exceeds Lope in massive intellectual power and in artistic self-restraint, and he exceeds Calderón in humour, in creative faculty, and in dramatic intuition. "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirso_de_Molina

Cultural influence

Don Juan fascinated the 18th-century English novelist Jane Austen: "I have seen nobody on the stage who has been a more interesting Character than that compound of Cruelty and Lust".[8]

The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard discussed Mozart's version of the Don Juan story at length in his treatise Either/Or.[9]

In 1901, Finnish composer Jean Sibelius wrote the second movement of his second symphony based on the climax of Don Juan. The piece begins with a representation of Death walking up the road to Don Juan's house, where Don Juan pleads with Death to let him live.

In Spain, the first three decades of the twentieth century saw more cultural fervor surrounding the Don Juan figure than perhaps any other period. In one of the most provocative pieces to be published, the endocrinologist Gregorio Marañón argued that, far from the paragon of masculinity he was often assumed to be, Don Juan actually suffered from an arrested psychosexual development.[10]

During the 1918 influenza epidemic in Spain, the figure of Don Juan served as a metaphor for the flu microbe.[11]

The mid-20th century French author Albert Camus referred to Don Juan in his essay The Myth of Sisyphus. Camus describes Don Juan as an example of an 'absurd hero', as he maintains a reckless abandon in his approach to love. His seductive lifestyle "brings with it all the faces in the world, and its tremor comes from the fact that it knows itself to be mortal". He "multiplies what he cannot unify... It is his way of giving and vivifying".[12]

Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman wrote and directed a comic sequel in 1960 titled The Devil's Eye in which Don Juan, accompanied by his servant, is sent from Hell to contemporary Sweden to seduce a young woman before her marriage.

Anthony Powell in his novel Casanova's Chinese Restaurant contrasts Don Juan, who "merely liked power" and "obviously did not know what sensuality was", with Casanova, who "undoubtedly had his sensuous moments".[13] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Juan

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Cherries
Act 1 Scene 1 – The garden of the Commendatore

The overture begins with a thundering D minor cadence, followed by a short misterioso sequence which leads into a light-hearted D major allegro. Leporello, Don Giovanni's servant, grumbles about his demanding master and daydreams about being free of him. He is keeping watch while Don Giovanni is in the Commendatore's house attempting to seduce or force himself on the Commendatore's daughter, Donna Anna.[24]

Pasta and Wine
The Garden

Don Giovanni enters the garden from inside the house, pursued by Donna Anna. Don Giovanni is masked and Donna Anna tries to hold him and to unmask him, shouting for help and exclaiming the only hope you have to flee is over her dead body! He breaks free but Commendatore blocks Don Giovanni's path and forces him to fight a duel. Don Giovanni kills the Commendatore with his sword and escapes with Leporello. Donna Anna, returning with her fiancé, Don Ottavio, is horrified to see her father lying dead in a pool of his own blood, making Don Ottavio swear vengeance against the unknown murderer.

Popsicle
Scene 2 – the square outside Don Giovanni's palace

The faithful servant condones his masters false chivalry, and the possibly rotten interoir of his master's heart, but does not find welcome ear in Don Giovanni- who is proceeding to flirt ith the love-sick chanteuse over-the-fence. Rudely awakened to see it is his former jilted lover, Donna Elvira, (he only beds a woman once, after all!) who becomes irate, but in a show of innocent confession, shoves his servant betwixt them to brace the situation, and eagerly explain that him master in only incompetant or impotent in only one thing- committing to a woman, and that he is not at all actually worth her tears. But his comforts are short lived as he then describes that he has done it to thousands of woman across Europe, and then produces an accordian-fold booklet cataloging each:
it reads:

  • 640 women and girls in Italy
  • 231 in Germany
  • 100 in France
  • 91 in Turkey
  • but in Spain, 1,003

  • Popsicle
    Scene 3 – The open country

    Don Giovanni delights in inserting himeself into the festivities in more ways than one. He proceeds to commandeer the wedding festivities of beautiful Zerlina and Masetto sending the latter and his mates up into the castle and remaining behind to introit with beautiful Zerlina, with the entwining of hands.

    Donna Elvira arives to save the honor of young Zerlina, telling her to "Flee from the traitor!" Don Ottavio and Donna Anna enter, plotting vengeance on the still unknown murderer of her father. False identity and accusation ensue with even each character in defense of themselves. Revenge is the topic, and innocence among men and women. Promises and evasions are made amongst the lovers and would-be seducers. Each seek to expose the truth with indignation, and during the wedding feast, while being given the run-around by Don Giovanni, and his possibly not-so-innocent female accomplices. Leporello, the humble servant laments the disaster, but Don Giovanni directs him to go ahead and plan the next paty, invite all the young girls, get the perfectly drunk, and there will be no need for tears. His excitement for an upcoming party comes out in spades in the fast and exuberant “Champagne Aria” in which he claims his list of female conquests will be enhanced by at least ten “by tomorrow morning.”

    Salmon
    Scene 4 – A garden outside Don Giovanni's palace

    Zerlina seeks to soothe the angry Masetto, and Don Giovanni falsley reproaches Masetto for leaving her alone, and all enter into the ballroom, as three masked guests enter the garden and are invited into the feast . The disguised Don Ottavio, Donna Anna, and Donna Elvira pray, "May the just heavens protect us." The famous ballroom scene featuring 3 seperate chamber orchestras onstage, Don Giovanni tries again to entrap Zerlina whilst his servant distracts the groom, and then is accused of trapping Zerlina to deflect accusations from Don Giovanni, but the masked guests protest and reveal the truth of his character- but he again evades the grpwing crowd.

    Sandwich
    Act 2 Scene 1 – Outside Donna Elvira's house

    Threatening to leave after his masters disgraceful actions, Leporello is convinced to stay with cash and faux-warm compliment, while Don Giovanni's real goal for the evening is to woo and bed his former lover's young maid, after his disguises and distracts them both, to sing enventually to the maid alone in seduction with mandolin. More accusers arrive, and the Disguised Don again weaves a web of illusion and mistrust as a lowley servant, encouraging the maddening mob to split up yo "seek Don Giovanni's life!" He them pummels Masetto and runs off. The mob find Don's servant in rich garb and want to kill him as Don Giovanni, Which Donna Elvira cannot bear and begs his life. Leporello begs for mercy as himself, and all see now the newer depths of Don Giovanni's depravity, assured he is indeed the murderr of the Commentador.

    "In the Vienna production of the opera, Zerlina follows Leporello and recaptures him. Threatening him with a razor, she ties him to a stool. He attempts to sweet-talk her out of hurting him. (Duet: "Per queste tue manine" – "For these hands of yours"). he eventually escpes after a rarely-performed scene featuring innuendo and "low-humor."

    Croissant
    Scene 3 – A graveyard with the statue of the Commendatore

    Set design- graveyand with memorial statue Prague, 1790s the earliest known set design for the opera
    Don and his servant happen upon eachother, and the heartless Don insults him further, just before the statue, speaking with the spirit of the Commendandator, warns Don Giovanni that his laughter "will not last beyond sunrise," over a plaque insctibed with the commendedors vendetta. Don mocks and feigns invitation of the statue to dinner but his servant is too terrified to complete the words, and Don Giovanni then does- and seals his fate.

    Croissant
    The Terror

    Feasting again, Elvira enters begging the staunch libertine to change his ways, for his own sake if no one elses. He taunts her Don Giovanni taunts her then shuns her, praising wine and women as the "support and glory of humankind." Hurrying offstage, she screams in terror, and others rush but become silimairly paralysed. The orchestral chords reharmonize with "diabolic diminished sevenths" accompanying the Commendatore memorial statue itself, offering repentance, unheaded. Don Giovanni is then terrorized by a chorus of demons carrying his into Hell. The accusers arrive to see a dissappeared villian, and a traumatized servant, having witnessed an extremesupernatural event before his eyes. A moral is presented over returning to D-major chords from on- or off-stage by the remaining chorus, that "Such is the end of the evildoer: the death of a sinner always reflects his life."

    Croissant